Cows Feedlot Business Management In Developing Country
Which is more necessary, learn how to raise cattle or his managerial skills?
Both are necessary, then which is more important?
The answer to this question will be long-winded and diplomatic. Usually, the answer will be both important.
But there are certain conditions where livestock managerial learning becomes more important.
Caring for and raising livestock is technical. Easy to get the information about this one.
We can know it from only seeing and imitating how others raise their livestock.
Not a few people who already raise the cattle. With their own reasons and goals, of course.
They feed and drink their cattle every day until it grow up. After that, the cows are sold and they get their money.
Every day they look for grass as animal feed. Spend some of their time and energy doing this activity.
But as a breeder who wants to advance, then we need to increase knowledge and learn to be more able to develop.
Our time and energy are limited.
How big is a farm that can be managed only by yourself? And how many livestock can be kept alone?
Therefore, by learning management we will be able to prepare many things become easier and regular.
What is it?
We can minimize the risks that are likely to occur.
Can be easier in planning cattle feedlot business.
Simplify the implementation of the business.
Supervision can be done easily and
Disease control is easy to do.
Do not be easily tempted just by the lure of profit.
From now on, breeders must be smart and aware that all business ventures have risks that can lead to failure and despair.
If we analyze from the beginning, then we will know the possible risks – risks that we will meet.
The risk here does not mean our efforts will always fail but if not avoided, it will hamper our business.
Of the many risks, I can say is as follows:
– Cow’s quality does not match what we want.
– Beef performance is not as expected
– Cow dead
– Employees are difficult to set.
– And there are still many things that may happen and that is beyond our expectations.
Cage feedlot management
Most cattle feedlot businesses use individual cages. This is more effective.
Individual cage is the best choice. Moreover, the area of land owned is limited.
In general, each cow needs space of about 1.5 meters x 2.5 meters.
If possible, the location of cows cage should be strategic. It means strategic is easy transportation access. There is a way to get the entry of cattle or feed easy to do.
The cage is better stretched from south to north. The reason is not to fight the wind directly.
In addition, cows cage will more easily get the sun evenly.
Sunlight is very good for livestock health. In addition, sunlight can also kill bacteria that harm cattle.
The roof can use zinc, esbes or tile. This roof option can be adjusted to the budget owned.
In principle, the roof can prevent heat or rain directly to the cow.
As much as possible the cage was made a wall. This is to reduce wind exposure.
However, it is worth noting the amount of ventilation as well.
The cage should have a section for feeding and drinking.
For a place to drink about the size of 84 cm long, 57 cm wide and a depth of about 45 cm.
While the feed section size about 98 cm long, 57 cm wide and 47 cm deep.
Both of the places of feed and drink better the bottom is essentially made concave.
Do not forget the floor of the cage is made slightly tilted. The goal is that cow urine is easier to flow.
Besides sloping, cages floor is also made a bit rough, so the cow is not easy to slip.
How to clean the cage
The cage is cleaned daily. Twice a day is even better. If forced to only able once a day, the right time is in the morning.
Clean the cow dung in the morning. The time, after giving the concentrate in the morning.
When cows are eating, workers or we clean up cow dung.
After solid waste is cleared from the cage, the floor can be sprayed with water. Better to use pressurized water.
Management and planning Feed for cattle feedlot
Before starting this business, we should have a plan what type of feed we will use during maintenance.
To make it easier to decide which type of feed to use, here is a guide.
1. Feed should be easy to obtain. As much as possible if the location is not far from the location of the farm.
Although the amount is abundant, but if it is far, the cost of transport becomes expensive too.
2. The availability of feed also needs to be taken into account. The feed should be sufficient during cattle fattening time.
Because if in the middle of the road there is a change in the type of feed, then the cow needs more time for adaptation.
3. Feed costs should also be considered in determining the type of feed. Do not be expensive.
Even if forced to be expensive, should still be able to generate profits in calculations.
4. Choose the type of feed that humans are not hooked. If the grass clearly there is no competition with humans.
Because usually, one of the concentrate ingredients is used by humans. For example, corn kernels, tofu waste and so forth.
5. We recommend having a list of alternative feed ingredients. This is to anticipate if the ingredients we plan, the availability is rare in the market.
Thus, we can replace the ingredients, with the amount of nutrients that are not much different.
6. Feed ingredients should be safe for livestock. At a minimum, it does not pose a detrimental risk to the cattle.
For example, cassava leaves. Although the nutritional content is good, but it has the risk of poisoning cows. Because cassava leaves have cyanide acid.
Although this cyanide acid can be removed, but additional treatment is required. Whether it is dried or in silage. This means that this treatment has become an additional job again.
Example of feed type for cattle feedlot
From some research reports that have been done, feed for cattle feedlot is forage, dry straw and concentrate.
Its use can be between the forage and the concentrate or just the straw and the concentrate. Or, you can also using the combination of all it.
Espescially for the forages, many options that can be used. It can be elephant grass, king grass or odot grass.
You can read more about king grass in article below.
Cattle feedlot feed (case study) 
The first study is from Mitra Andini Farm. This farm is located in Gunung Pati Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesia.
Where do I get this data from?
The data were obtained from field work report of one of the students of Diponegoro University who apprenticed there. More specifically, I write in reference no .
Type of feed used is concentrate and rice straw.
The concentrate is not a commercial concentrate. The concentrate ingredients are dregs of tofu, bran, cassava and salt.
The Concentrate is given in the form of a combination. The comparison is 20 kg of tofu, 6 kg of cassava and 2 kg of rice bran.
The composition of the concentrate is for 1 cow with different weight variations.
In addition, still added with salt.
Concentrate is divided into two feeding times.
That is in the morning around 07.30 am and at 16.00 pm.
Approximately 1 to 2 hours after giving the concentrate, then the cattle are given rice straw.
In the morning, the provision of straw is 4 kgs and the afternoon is 7 kgs.
The comparison between straw and concentrate is around 60:40.
With the type of concentrate ingredients as above, per day of raised cattle can increase daily body weight between 1.1 kg – 1.25 kg / head / day.
Cattle feedlot feed (case study) 
This second study is from one of the cattle ranchers at Citapen Ciawi, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia.
The source I wrote in reference no .
For the case study of this second farm, the feed used is forage and concentrate.
The forages used are field grass and the concentrate is obtained by commercial concentrate.
Feed is given 2 times a day. That is in the morning and afternoon.
The trick is similar to the first case study
Cattle feedlot feed (case Study)
This third case study, the location of the farm is in Klaten, Central Java, Indonesia.
Type of feed used is grass, fermented straw and concentrate.
The grass is the elephant grass. While the concentrate is obtained from the commercial concentrate and still added with other materials.
The elephant grass is only given to female limousine cows, while the bulls get the fermented straw.
The concentrate composition consists of commercial concentrate, wheat brand (polard), fermentation of cassava dregs and premix as mineral sources.
Each comparison is as much as 100 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg and 0.25 kg.
All the ingredients are mixed evenly.
Cassava dregs Fermentation
To make fermented cassava dregs, the ingredients that need to be prepared are:
2000 kgs of cassava, Starbio 1 kg, EM4 120 cc, and molasses 15 kgs.
After fermentation, the nutritional content of cassava dregs is as follows:
For small or low weight cattle, concentrate and rice straw are given as much as 2 kgs and 4.5 kgs per head per day.
While for high weight cow, giving of concentrate and rice straw respectively is 10 and 7.5 kgs / head / day.
Management of Cattle disease control
The best way to control disease in cattle farms is to prevent it.
How to prevent it is to pay attention to the cleanliness of the cage, feed quality and vaccination.
However, sometimes there is a disease that still affects the cows.
Here are some health issues in cattle, the following are examples of the medicine.
Cow Hurt by Friction with Hard objects
Usually the cow will rub its body to the wall of the cage or barrier.
This can cause injury to the cow skin when the cow rubs its body for a long time.
Drugs that can be used is a spray drug type. For example of the brand is gusanex.
Keep your cow’s appetite
To maintain the performance of cow’s appetite can be by providing additional vitamins.
Vitamins used are vitamin b complex. The dose is 10 – 20 cc according to the size of the cow body.
Giving by injection (intramuscular) on the back of the cow.
For cows that have worms, drugs that can be given example is Kalbazen C.
Giving is done every once a month. The dose is 10 cc.
The way of giving is by way of oral. Can be mixed into the feed. If the cow wants to.
If the cow scabies, the example of a drug that can be used is ivervet. Dosage is 6 cc per head. How to administer it through intramuscular injection through the back.
If confused, you should consult with a veterinarian if you see a cow disease and you have trouble to treat it by yourself.
Handling of Cattle Livestock Waste
Waste from cattle will mostly be dominated by cow dung itself. For handling this one livestock waste, the most common is to make it into compost.
To make this compost fertilizer, I have written in a separate article. Please visit the article link to read it.
 Haryanti, Nina Woro. 2009. Quality of Feed and Sufficiency of Simental Cattle Nutrition at Mitra Farm Farm Andini, Gunung Pati Village, Semarang City. Department of Food and Nutrition Fapet Undip Semarang.
 Pratama, Yoga Arya. 2013. Feasibility Analysis of Beef Cattle Fattening In Animal Husbandry Mr. Sarno Citapen Ciawi Village, Bogor Regency. Dept. Agribusiness Faculty of Economics and Management IPB.
 Didy, Alfianus Dangga. 2009. Management of Beef Fattening in CV. Sumber Baja Perkasa Klaten Regency. DIII Agribusiness Program of Animal Husbandry Faculty of Agriculture UNS Surakarta.